2001 Jackson-McCabe Book Review in 2011?!

I noted yesterday that there was a book review session this week at the Society of Biblical Literature International Meeting in London on Matt Jackson-McCabe’s 2001 publication, Logos and Law in the Letter of James.  What?!

A friend wrote me this morning and said, “It’s 2011. . . Isn’t it a little bit late to be holding a review session on Jackson-McCabe’s “Logos & Law” (pub 2001)? ☺”  Indeed. Why is there now a book review session on this work, ten years after its appearance (13 years if you count the date of its appearance as a doctoral thesis)? It certainly seems a bit odd.

Apparently this panel discussion occurred three days ago, but I haven’t seen any blog postings about it. I’m curious to hear what came of this discussion. For my part, I suggest that the book review submitted by Matthias Konradt in the Journal of Biblical Literature in the Spring of 2003 (vol. 122, no. 1) was quite adequate. I copy here Konradt’s concluding remarks…

Jackson-McCabe has enriched the discussion of the understanding of the “word,” which is important for the general understanding of James, with a new and interesting variant. Especially important in this context is the case he makes for not rashly isolating different strands of traditions. His interpretation of James, however, does not bear critical scrutiny. Contrary to Jackson-McCabe‘s assertion (see, e.g., p.133), the phrase ἔμφυτος λόγος can hardly be proven to be a terminus technicus on the basis of seldom, widely strewn, and—in addition—inexact references. Furthermore, Jackson-McCabe does not discuss other usages of ἔμφυτος at all (Philo, for example, uses this word only in the context of vices). And a passage such as Barn. 9.9 (ὁ τὴν ἔμφυτον δωρεὰν τῆς διδαχῆς αὐτοῦ θέμενος) plays no part in Jackson-McCabe‘s analysis.

However, the fact that Jackson-McCabe does not succeed in invalidating the traditional objections to the Stoic interpretation of 1:21 is more important. That the logos as innate human reason has an external form in the “law of freedom” is hardly a sufficient explanation for the phrase “to receive the logos,” or, respectively, “to hear and do the logos.” To use the terminology of Apos. Con. 8.9.8, the νόμος γραπτός is precisely not what is to be received in James, but rather the ἔμφυτος λόγος itself. Most of all, Jackson-McCabe passes over the traditio-historical roots in the early Christian tradition of 1:18 and 21, which are central to his interpretation. The two-part scheme in 1:21, in which the negative part is formulated with ἀποτίθεσθαι, has a number of early Christian parallels that belong to the context of postconversional instruction (Rom 13:12–14; Eph 4:22–24; Col 3:8–10; 1 Pet 2:1–2), and these are the only occurrences of this scheme. Moreover, Jas 1:18 corresponds closely to 1 Pet 1:23–25 (Jackson-McCabe dismisses it too quickly; see p. 191). This strongly suggests that James has taken over the entire sequence in 1:18, 21 from an early Christian tradition, which interpreted conversion as a (re-)birth through the word of the gospel leading the convert to the truth, and combined this with the admonition to follow this word from now on. In this context, ἔμφυτος is to be read as a reference back to the birth metaphor in 1:18. And the law in Jas 1:25 is not identical with the word or its external form, but rather is one side or aspect of it.

Furthermore, Jackson-McCabe‘s interpretation of the “lights” in Jas 1:17 is hazardous at best. There is no hint at all in the text that James intended to create an analogy between the “lights” and the human race. Finally, 1:18b does not comment on the exalted position of humans in creation, but the ἀπαρχή is the part of God’s creatures set apart for him. Philo (Spec. 4.180) uses the word with reference to the chosen nation (cf. Rev 14:4; 1 Clem. 29.3), and in following this traditional line Jas 1:18 refers to those who became God’s possession by converting to the Christian faith in a similar manner.

Letter of James this week at International SBL

The International Meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature takes place this week at King’s College London, walking distance from Westminster Abbey (right). This year marks the 400th anniversary of the King James Bible, but my interest (as usual) pertains to the Letter of James. Below are the abstracts of papers related to the Letter of James being presented this week at the SBL International Meeting…

Alien(n)ation: Reading the Epistle of James through the Psychology of Migration
Program Unit: Psychological Hermeneutics of Biblical Themes and Texts
Margaret Aymer, Interdenominational Theological Center

The epistle of James addresses itself to “the exiles in diaspora.” This paper suggests taking this framing seriously. Using the psychology of migration developed by John Berry and nuanced by diaspora theorists like Avtar Brah, this paper demonstrates that James proposes a migrant stance of alienation vis-a-vis the community’s relationship with home and host culture. Further, James creates a “diaspora space” (Brah) of an “alien nation,” one that exists in but is “unstained” by the cosmos. The paper goes on to suggest the implications of the proposed migrant stances of James and of other New Testament authors for communities that use these ancient texts as scripture. It argues that the “scripturalization” of texts with different migrant stances as the central identifying referent of a community impacts the identity, political engagement, and world stance of that community, regardless of whether the community is, itself, made of migrants.

Redundancy, Discontinuity and Delimitation in the Epistle of James
Program Unit: Hellenistic Greek Language and Linguistics
Steven E. Runge, Logos Bible Software

The letter of James contains a number of instances of nominative or vocative forms of address in contexts where the addressees are already well established. These expressions often co-occur with what form criticism has labeled “disclosure formulas,” and are sometimes associated with marking boundaries within the discourse. This paper examines the role that semantic redundancy plays in judgments about the discourse function of these expressions. It also considers the role location plays on these judgments, both with respect to the clause and the paragraph. It will be demonstrated that when these expressions are not semantically required, they serve as an alternative means to conjunctions for marking new developments within the discourse, and thus play an important role in delimiting pericope boundaries within the epistle.

“…the Scripture Speaks against Envy”: Another Look at James 4:5
Program Unit: Pastoral and Catholic Epistles
Clinton Wahlen, Biblical Research Institute

Despite the predominantly negative usage of phthonos in Greek literature, including its NT usage, a long-standing consensus understands God to be the subject of the clause with pros phthonon in James 4:5. This paper, following a brief survey of proposed solutions, will present a viable alternative that makes better sense of the syntax of the verse within its immediate context (vv. 1-10).

Theme: Book Review: Matt A. Jackson-McCabe, Logos and Law in the Letter of James (Society of Biblical Literature, 2001)
Program Unit: Pastoral and Catholic Epistles

Felix H. Cortez, Universidad de Montemorelos, Presiding
Mariam Kamell, Regent College, Panelist (20 min)
Darian Lockett, Biola University, Panelist (20 min)
A. K. M. Adam, University of Glasgow, Panelist (20 min)
Matt Jackson-McCabe, Cleveland State University, Respondent (30 min)
Discussion (40 min)

Asyndeton as unmarked connective

In his Discourse Grammar of the Greek New Testament, I’m thrilled that Steven Runge begins chapter 2 on “Connecting Propositions” with a discussion of asyndeton as the unmarked (default) connective. Asyndeton basically means that no connective is used to link consecutive propositions in a discourse. I believe that exegetes may often find huge benefits in recognizing asyndeton as the unmarked connective, especially if they ask why no other connective was used. This is a great example of the payload of the concept that Runge introduces in chapter one that “choice implies meaning” (pp. 5ff). Since the author had the choice to use various connectives, what is the specific meaning of this connective? And this is no less true with asyndeton when no connective appears.

However, I think Runge is still riding the fence a bit and perpetuating a misconception about asyndeton that contradicts the linguistic theory of markedness that he has already summarized. He’s right on when he says this:

The use of asyndeton indicates that the writer chose not to make a relation explicit. The relation must be gleaned from the context (p. 22).

And he’s also right to suggest that “asyndeton can be used at points of discontinuity” or “in contexts of close connection, such as moving from generic to specific” (pp. 22-23). But that is the extent of what Runge says about asyndeton used to express continuity. Nothing else. On the other hand, the weight of his discussion promotes the idea that asyndeton does NOT mean what other connectives mean:

Levinsohn summarizes the use of asyndeton in non-narrative by stating that since explicit connectives are used to indicate clause relationships such as strengthening, developmental, associative, or inferential, “the use of asyndeton tends to imply ‘not strengthening, not developmental, not associative, not inferential, etc.‘ ” (p. 23, citing Levinsohn, Discourse Features of New Testament Greek, 2nd ed., p. 119).

But that is only one side of a much more carefully nuanced description by Levinsohn:

Strictly speaking, the absence of any conjunction between sentences of a Greek text should imply only that the author offered no processing constraint on how the following material was to be related to its context… In practice, however, New Testament authors tend to use a conjunction whenever the relationship with the context concerned is strengthening (γὰρ), developmental (δὲ), associative or additive (καὶ), or inferential-cum-resumptive (ὅτι), etc. Consequently, asyndeton tends to imply “not strengthening, not developmental, not associative, not inferential, etc.” This is why asyndeton is often the norm when the relation of the following material to the context is not logical or chronological. [At this point, Levinsohn includes a footnote in which he suggests asyndeton as the norm for orientation, restatement, and associative (comment and parenthetical) relationships.]

Asyndeton is found in two very different contexts in non-narrative text:

  • when there is a close connection between the information concerned (i.e., the information belongs together in the same unit)
  • when there is no direct connection between the information concerned (i.e., the information belongs to different units).  (Levinsohn, p. 118)

At this point, Levinsohn includes a footnote in which he suggests that one may recognize when no direct connection between juxtaposed information is intended by the presence of vocatives and orienters (complement-taking predicates). I don’t agree with Levinsohn on this point. These devices may be included precisely to draw attention to the next development in the argument whether or not it relates to the previous passage. On this point, Iver Larsen argues that a vocative is

a rhetorical device, not a structural device, and it functions to establish a closer relationship with the hearers.” (“Boundary features in the Greek New Testament,” Notes on Translation, vol. 5, 1991:51)

The default assumption in any communication is that consecutive units do relate. I don’t believe that just because an author may typically use particular connectives to explicitly convey specific relationships that the use of asyndeton in other places means that those relationships are not implied. It may simply be the difference of whether those relationships are explicitly indicated with a conjunction or implicitly included with asyndeton. Sometimes making the relationship explicit says too much, or skews the argument, or betrays the persuasive power of the author too soon and ruins the chances for successful and convincing communication.

Thus, asyndeton is best understood as the unmarked form that may implicitly include a broad range of semantic relationships. But the way that Runge presents asyndeton, with the weight of its supposed significance falling on discontinuity, contradicts what he has already summarized about markedness:

The default option is considered ‘unmarked’ for the qualities found in the other members of the set. The quality may or may not be present.  The choice to use a marked form represents the choice to explicitly signal the presence of a quality that would only have been implicit if the default were used (pp. 11-12).

Whether the relation is explicit or implicit is very different from saying that the unmarked use of asyndeton implies that those logical relations are not present at all. ‘Unmarked’ means that a feature is not explicitly included. It does not follow, however, that a feature is explicitly excluded.

In my recent thesis addressing discourse concerns in the Letter of James, I have discussed the extensive use of asyndeton in that letter. Scholarship in James has too often erred in assuming that asyndeton implies discontinuity. That idea follows the outdated approach to James made popular by Dibelius in the early 20th century that the letter is composed of a string of unrelated sayings and shorter discourses. Yet, it is very enlightening to interpret the possible functions of asyndeton in the same letter if we follow the default assumption of coherence (as humanity universally does with almost any communication).

Here is the description of asyndeton that I have proposed in discussing the Letter of James. It follows the theory of markedness more closely…

Although the interpretation of explicit conjunctions is often a matter of inferring implied semantic information, the prevalence of asyndeton (the lack of conjunctions), means that coherence and text organization must be determined even more frequently on the basis of implied logical relationships. With 80 instances of asyndeton after 1.1, other bases must be recognized for grouping many units together, including implied semantic relationships. This is also true for larger spans. Investigating the possible logical relationships where asyndeton shows up at higher discourse levels is often neglected. It is difficult since the possibilities for coherence are multiplied with larger spans of text. The major difficulty with analyzing asyndeton is that it may represent either of opposite ends on a scale of cohesion. The two units may be so closely related that no conjunction divides the thought. Or, the units may be so distinct that no conjunction is necessary. If asyndeton is considered to reflect continuity, the extent of each unit being related and the implied logical relation are also unspecified. These determinations must be made from other contextual clues. If anything, asyndeton may indicate the author’s desire to not emphasize any specific relationship. Asyndeton is often found between spans that have some kind of continuity and discontinuity, and for that reason, an explicit conjunction may have communicated too much. (Pehrson, “Mitigation and Intensification of Persuasive Discourse in a Koine Greek Letter: Coherent Macrostructure in the Letter of James,” pp. 58-59)

I see now that what I have described above is somewhat close to what Levinsohn describes for asyndeton. We both recognize the possibility of asyndeton being able to reflect either continuity or discontinuity. However, I am much more ready to find continuity (even if it is a more loose or broadly defined continuity) where Levinsohn may see a change in major or minor topics (cf. Levinsohn, p. 119).

Levinsohn also suggests that asyndeton and other connectives are used differently by different New Testament authors:

The ways in which καὶ and δὲ are used in John’s Gospel do not correspond exactly with how they are employed in the Synoptic Gospels and Acts. This is because two other forms of linkage are employed in John’s Gospel in contexts in which καὶ and δὲ would have occurred had the material been written in the style of the Synoptics. One of them is asyndeton (the absence of a conjunction), which is John’s default means of conjoining sentences (Poythress 1984:331), instead of καὶ. John’s other common marker of linkage is ὅτι; he uses it as a low-level development marker in certain contexts in which the Synoptics and Acts use δὲ. (Levinsohn, pp. 81-82)

Such variance of usage between different authors is a good argument that supports the idea that “choice implies meaning.” Yet with asyndeton, we must not take this too far and conclude that asyndeton cannot mean what other connectors mean. Rather than being a question of either-or, it is probably more of a scalar notion. Asyndeton may imply the same relationship as other connectives, but it does not express it explicitly. There may be a difference of degree for the particular relation, or asyndeton may be an intentional move in the rhetoric to even momentarily hide the relationship. Good argumentation is not always immediately clear. Asyndeton may allow the movement of the argument to be realized only after more of the story is heard, and then with the benefit of gaining a better hearing.

So, I disagree with Runge somewhat in the details. As he says in the preface,

The reader still bears the responsibility of synthesizing and interpreting the analysis and can choose to reject a claim just as one might with most any other scholarly resource. (p. xix)

But I’m still loving this book. Runge is a good conversation partner. And it’s good to go back to Levinsohn and other discourse studies while reading him.

A Dozen SBL Papers on James

As in 2009, the 2010 Annual Meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature includes twelve papers related to James and his letter. This year the meeting takes place in Atlanta, Georgia from November 20 – 23. These twelve papers will be delivered during eight different sessions representing seven different program units…

Letters of James, Peter, and Jude
1:00 PM to 3:30 PM

Theme: James and Q/Early Jesus Tradition
These papers will only be summarized so as to allow maximum discussion. The papers will be distributed in advance to all those who have added their name to the Letters of James, Peter, and Jude Section list in past years. If you have not yet added your name to this list, you may do so by contacting Robert Webb.

Robert Webb, McMaster University, Presiding

Dale C. Allison, Jr., Pittsburgh Theological Seminary
The Jesus Tradition in James 4.1-12
James 4.1-12 is intertextually rich. It consistently interaacts with the Jewish Bible–borrowing several scriptural idioms, quoting an unknown “graphe,” citing Prov 3:34, and interpreting Lev 19.15-18–and further makes good use of the Jesus tradition. V. 3 ironically takes up the Q text in Mt 7.7-8 = Lk 11.9-10. Vv. 11-12 interpret Lev 19:15-18 through the lens of another Q text, Mt 7.1-5 = Lk 6.37, 41-42. And 4.20 might be partly inspired by Lk 6.25 (Q?).

Alicia Batten, University of Sudbury
The Impact of an Urban Setting on Jesus Traditions in James
Although little consensus exists as to the provenance of the Letter of James, scholars have noticed details in the missive, such as the references to fine clothes, rings and crowns, and thematic elements, including allusions to philosophical concepts, that support an urban setting. The rhetoric and overall elegance of the document also suggests that it was written for an audience that would have appreciated such literary sophistication. This paper begins by reviewing some of the thematic and literary aspects of James that point to a city or town as its site of origin. It then turns to some of the parallels between James and teachings associated with Jesus (the paper concurs with many scholars that there are connections between a form of Jesus sayings and James) in order to analyse how James’ urban environment has influenced the manner in which the author adapts some of these antecedent traditions.

Patrick J. Hartin, Gonzaga University
Wholeness in James and the Q Source
The sayings traditions of Jesus of Nazareth lie at the foundation of the moral exhortations in both the Letter of James are the Q Source. An examination of both James and Q reveals that they hold some moral exhortations in common. The purpose of this paper will be to examine these common links with the Jesus tradition by focusing on their vision of God and its consequence for action. This study demonstrates that faith in action captures the vision of James and the Q source. James’s vision embraced an understanding of works that occurred in the context of one’s whole life of faith (Jas 1:14) as does the Q Source (Q 6:46-49). A social-scientific examination of the Israelite value of ‘wholeness’ demonstrates that this value is reflected equally in James and Q. Patterns of all-or-nothing (characteristic of the Israelite value of wholeness) are common to James and Q. Some examples that are examined: God demands total allegiance; people cannot serve both God and mammon (Q 16:13). Friendship with the world is enmity with God (Jas 4:4); the need to keep the whole Law (Q 16:17 and Jas 2:10), etc. Through this analysis of the moral exhortations in James and Q, this paper illustrates that the Q tradition as it developed further in the Sermon on the Mount is also reflected in the Jesus tradition at the heart of James’s ethical teaching. The common links in the traditions between James and Q are explained from the fact that James is aware of the Jesus tradition as it is being handed on within the Q community and its developing tradition as seen in the Q Sermon on the Mount.

David A. Kaden, University of Toronto
Stoicism, Social Stratification, and the Q Tradition in James: A Suggestion about James’ Audience
James is addressed to “the twelve tribes in the Diaspora”. “Twelve tribes” has been interpreted as a metaphor for “Christians”. But if the greeting is taken at face value, then James’ audience would be Diaspora Judaeans, and the letter itself would be situated in the larger milieu of Hellenistic Judaism. There were several Diasporic centers in antiquity. This paper will argue that James’ audience was in Rome in the early second century CE. This assumes of course that “James” is a pseudonym. Other scholars have argued for a Roman provenance based, for example, on connections between James and the Shepherd of Hermas. This paper is intended to substantially strengthen this hypothesis. First, by detailing linguistic similarities between James and the Stoic Epictetus, who began his teaching career in Rome. Second, by examining how James adapts the Jesus tradition from Q for an audience higher up the social register than the Q people. Finally, by analyzing James’ rhetorical usage of the categories “rich” and “poor” to situate the audience somewhere in between. When these data are linked with the social situation in Rome in the early second century CE after the Dacian Wars led by Trajan, a remarkable picture emerges. Trajan’s wars precipitated an economic revival in the capital city, and the letter of James seems to reflect this. The writer’s affinity for Stoicism, the ideology of the Roman “bourgeois”, locks together nicely with the adaptation of the Q tradition for an audience higher up the social register. It also explains why the writer rhetorically locates the audience between the rich and poor, on the one hand urging them to care for the latter, and on the other warning them not to become greedy like the former.

John Kloppenborg, University of Toronto, Respondent

Violence and Representations of Violence among Jews and Christians
1:00 PM to 3:30 PM

Theme: First Martyrs

Shelly Matthews, Furman University
The Second-Century Construction of the First Christian Martyr: Acts’ Stephen and Hegessipus’ James
This paper argues that Acts’ narrative of the Stoning of Stephen and Hegessipus’ narrative of the martyrdom of James are variations on the same trope. While Hegessipus is typically characterized as a “Jewish-Christian,” and the author of Acts clearly privileges a more Hellenistic, “Pauline” Christianity, both authors employ nearly identical means to construct the first Christian martyr.

Speech and Talk: Discourses and Social Practices in the Ancient Mediterranean World
4:00 PM to 6:30 PM

Jeremy Hultin, Yale University
James and the Abusive Tongue
In terms of the content of its advice about speech, the Epistle of James is largely conventional. What is not so common is the way James sets the tongue at the heart of a cosmic and primeval struggle. True religion, says James, consists in keeping oneself “unstained by the world” (1:27), but the tongue — which is itself “the unrighteous world” — stains the body (3:6). The defiling world is present in the human body. The tongue sets “the wheel of creation aflame” and is itself “set on fire by hell.” The tongue is not only a portal between Hell and Creation, but it, unlike the animals (!), has not been brought under human control (3:7-8). James has, in effect, configured “the world,” “religion,” and “the tongue” in such a way so that to use the tongue improperly is actually to grant “the world” access to one’s mouth. Thus the male and female addressees are alike “adulteresses” (4:4). Whereas most Greeks and Romans viewed abusive language as the mark of a manly brio (cf. Catullus 16 or Priapic poetry), in James’s apocalyptic discourse, verbal assaults constitute a sexual humiliation.

The KJV at 400: Assessing its Genius as Bible Translation and its Literary Influence
4:00 PM to 6:30 PM

Scot McKnight, North Park University
KJV Theology/Exegesis through the Lens of James
No abstract available.

Letters of James, Peter, and Jude
9:00 AM to 11:30 AM

Theme: Open Papers

David A. deSilva, Ashland Theological Seminary
James and the Testament of Job: The Evidence for Intertextuality
The prominence of the language of “patient endurance” (makrothymia, hypomone) in James 5:7-11, thematic also throughout T. Job 1-27, together with the explicit mention of Job as exemplary in this regard, typically invite some comparison between the two texts. The connections between the passages, however, are more intricate than scholars usually discern. The passage from James is a well-constructed argument promoting the virtue of endurance, specifically with an eye to God’s future intervention, as in the Testament. Job’s example serves directly to support the call to “patiently endure” (Jas 5:7), as it does in Job’s commendation of this virtue to his children (T. Job 27:7). James adds a rationale to explain the cause of the happy outcome of Job’s endurance: “because the Lord is very sympathetic and compassionate” (Jas 5:11), qualities of God that also promote endurance in T. Job. 26.4-6. Both – and, as far as I can tell, only – James and the Testament invoke these qualities of God specifically as a rationale for endurance and an assurance of the better consequences that attend endurance in connection with Job’s story. James and Testament of Job, unlike canonical Job, do not raise the problem of suffering without knowing why. Both texts prepare readers to interpret sufferings and challenges as “trials” by means of which virtue can be tested, proven, and eventually rewarded, even crowned with victory (Jas 1:12; T. Job 4:10). This fundamental orientation runs throughout both texts. While the difficulties arriving at consensus regarding the date of Testament of Job give one pause in arguing for direct literary dependency, the linguistic, rhetorical, and thematic connections between James and the Testament suggest some kind of close relationship between the two documents, with the former presupposing the traditions expressed – and the formulations in which they are expressed – of the latter.

Historical Jesus
4:00 PM to 6:30 PM

Theme: The Historical Jesus in Recent Research

John Paul Dickson, Macquarie University
The Epistle of James as a “Source” for the Historical Jesus
Pursuing a recent suggestion of Prof James H. Charlesworth that the letter of James perhaps “should be recognized as a source for Jesus” this paper examines the methodological issues involved in such a line of inquiry. Scholars have long noted the unusual number of allusions to Jesus traditions in this epistle. While most think it unlikely that this material is directly dependent on one or more of the canonical Gospels, most agree that the affinities between James and Q are impressive. This paper argues that the author of the epistle self-consciously portrays himself throughout as a custodian of the words of Jesus and that this fact heightens the need to unravel the puzzle of whether James is simply a third witness to Q or an independent witness to Jesus.

Jewish Christianity / Christian Judaism
9:00 AM to 11:30 AM

Petri Luomanen, University of Helsinki
Jesus’ appearance to James the Just
In Illustrious Men, Jerome describes how Jesus appeared to his brother, James the Just: “But the Lord after he had given linen cloth to the servant of the priest, went to James and appeared to him (for James had sworn that he would not eat bread from the hour in which he drank the cup of the Lord until he had seen him rising again from those who sleep), and again, a little later, it says: Bring the table and bread, said the Lord. And immediately it is added: He brought bread and blessed and brake it and gave it to James the Just and said to him: My brother, eat thy bread for the Son of Man is risen from those who sleep.” (Jerome, Vir. Ill. 2; Trans. Klijn, Jewish-Christian Gospel Tradition, 1992).” The Eucharistic allusions of the passage have often been noted but they have not been paid much attention in the discussion about the passage, except that a meal is recognized as one of the usual settings for Jesus’ appearance. Usually it is also assumed that one of the basic motives behind the passage is to provide a story of James as a witness of resurrection, mentioned in Cor 15:7 but not described in the canonical gospels. But why does the story include James’ vow? The paper explores the possibility that the vow is related to the so-called “Easter controversy” that arose towards the end of second century between Asian and other dioceses (Eusebius, Hist. eccl. V 23-25). The controversy concerned the timing of Easter and, consequently, the length of “Christian” Easter fast: should it always end on “the day of Savior’s resurrection” or on the fourteenth of Nisan.

Søren Kierkegaard Society
1:00 PM to 3:30 PM

Theme: Kierkegaard, Hermeneutics, and the Epistle of James
This session will give special attention to Kierkegaard’s interpretive practice in regard to the Epistle of James and the Johannine writings. The ways in which his theological convictions shaped his reading of Scripture and his reading of Scripture shaped his theological convictions will be explored.

Paul Martens, Baylor University
Grace in Creation: Kierkegaard on James 1:18 and the Condition for Receiving Gods Gifts
Luke Timothy Johnson, following Richard Bauckham (1999), claims that Kierkegaard “does not so much try to figure out what James meant as to consider what his own life means in light of James” (2004, 243). The purpose of this paper is to challenge the either/or implicit in Johnson’s assessment by attending to Kierkegaard’s interpretation of James 1:18. In the intense scholarly debates surrounding this passage, there are three basic options concerning who is brought forth by the “word of truth”: humanity, Jews, or Christians. In his idiosyncratic “upbuilding discourses” devoted to James 1:17-22, Kierkegaard seems oblivious to the minute details of this debate. Yet, this paper displays how a careful reading of Kierkegaard’s 1843 “Every Good Gift” discourse places him right in the middle of the debate. In short, this paper shows how Kierkegaard’s exegetical reflections on James 1:18 provide a sort of theological anthropology, an account of how God’s grace is the first word: God extends grace to all humanity in that God creates everyone with the absolute need for God, a good and perfect gift that (a) must be awakened and (b) can only be satisfied by the gift of the received Word (James 1:21). The proposed paper begins by briefly summarizing the scholarly debates surrounding this verse. Second, in conversation with Timothy Polk (1997) and Bauckham, it carefully examines Kierkegaard’s cryptic comments in the second of “Four Upbuilding Discourses” published in 1843. Third, it explores related texts in Kierkegaard’s corpus—“To Need God is a Human Being’s Highest Perfection” (1844), Philosophical Fragments (1844), and Works of Love (1847)—to illuminate the depth of Kierkegaard’s interpretive insight. In conclusion, coming full circle, the paper argues that it is precisely through considering his own life in light of James that Kierkegaard passionately sought to interpret what James meant.

Richard B. Purkarthofer, Howard V. and Edna H. Hong Kierkegaard Library
Kierkegaard’s First Love: On the Role of the Epistle of James in Kierkegaard’s Authorship
As early as 1835-36, we find Kierkegaard translating portions of the Epistle of James from Greek into Latin. References and allusions to the Epistle are to be found throughout Kierkegaard’s subsequent writings. In what would become his last edifying discourse, in the last year of his life, Kierkegaard returned once more to a pericope from the Epistle, calling it “my first love.” My proposed paper will survey the Epistle’s significance for Kierkegaard’s authorship as a whole. Following a brief historical account of Kierkegaard’s use of James, I will investigate a number of stylistic features common to the Epistle and to Kierkegaard’s writings (both published and unpublished). These include dialogical elements, the use of fictive interlocutors, rhetorical questions, and other features typical of the Cynic/Stoic diatribe form, along with the use of Stichwortverbindungen. I will then turn to a number of Kierkegaardian concepts that are heavily influenced by the Epistle of James, such as despair, purity/purification, and simple-mindedness. By way of conclusion, I will comment on evidence from Kierkegaard’s own copies of the Bible. This includes underlining, notes, and other marks in the Epistle of James, presumably by Kierkegaard’s own hand. I will cite this evidence to support key details of my proposed account of the stylistic and conceptual influence of the Epistle of James on Kierkegaard.

Thesis on coherence in James finished!

I took a break from posting here to finish my thesis before we head back to our translation work overseas.

I successfully defended the thesis on Tuesday at the Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics, and now we’ve got less than a week before we start heading back to continue our work in language development in Papua New Guinea.

Anyway, I’ve added the following thesis title to the Recent James Scholarship page and to the James Bibliography page…

“Mitigation and Intensification of Persuasive Discourse in a Koine Greek Letter: Coherent Macrostructure in the Letter of James.”

Here’s the abstract…

Supervising Professor: Shin Ja J. Hwang

A longstanding debate continues regarding coherent structure in the Koine Greek New Testament Letter of James. I argue that multiple linguistic perspectives confirm the central theme of trust in divine grace and mercy as foundational to Christian behavior. Applying Lakoff and Johnson’s cognitive semantics theory to James, a faith-journey conceptual metaphor structures the life of faith according to the source-path-goal image schema with a born-of-grace conceptual metaphor reflecting the source. Using Longacre and Hwang’s discourse theory, I describe James in terms of discourse type, notional schemata, macrosegmentation, skewing, paragraph relations, verb/clause salience, and embedding. A prototype approach reveals James as a persuasive text with embedded hortatory and expository units. Movements of mitigation and intensification most clearly reveal the coherent structure within the text’s profile and peaks. The controlling theme is ultimately derived from the above investigations in terms of van Dijk’s theory of macrostructure.

This isn’t part of the abstract, but the macrostructure (author’s global semantic plan) that I suggest for James is this:

Trust God, for he desires both to give grace to live righteously and to judge sin with mercy for all who have true faith, which is shown in humble acts of love for God and others.

I also argue for the following discourse peaks in James…

4:1-6 – First expository peak

4:7-10 – First persuasive peak

5:1-6 – Second expository peak (persuasive through skewing)

5:7-12 – Second persuasive peak

40 Titles on James Added

I have added about 40 more titles to the Recent James Scholarship page. They are in chronological order there, so I list them below in alphabetical order. A few of the titles are not entirely related to James, but they do touch on James.

Andria, Solomon. 2006. “James.” Pages 1509-16 in Africa Bible Commentary. Ed. By Tokunboh Adeyemo. Nairobi: Word Alive Publishers.

Bond, Helen K. 2002. “Book Review: James the Just.” Expository Times 113: 278.

Bottini, Claudio. 1998. “Letter of James (1): Content and the Theological Message of the Letter of James.” Essay prepared by the faculty of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Jerusalem.

Bottini, Claudio. 1998. “Letter of James (2): The Moral Message of the Letter of James.” Essay prepared by the faculty of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Jerusalem.

Bottini, Claudio. 1998. “Letter of James (3): Confession of Sins and Intercession (I).” Essay prepared by the faculty of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Jerusalem.

Bottini, Claudio. 1998. “Letter of James (4): Confession of Sins and Intercession (II).” Essay prepared by the faculty of the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Jerusalem.

Bowman, Christopher. 2000. “Review of Patrick J. Hartin’s A Spirituality of Perfection: Faith in Action in the Letter of James.” Review of Biblical Literature.

Byron, Gay L. 2007. “James.” In True to Our Native Land: An African American New Testament Commentary. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 461-75.

Cargal, Timothy B. 1999. “James.” In Full Life Bible Commentary to the New Testament, 1401-29. Ed. by French L. Arrington and Roger Stronstad. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.

Catchpole, David. 1991. “Book Review: The Enigma of James.” Expository Times 103: 26.

Cranfield, C. E. B. 1990. “Book Review: James.” Expository Times 102: 23.

Davids, Peter H. 2000. “Review of Todd C. Penner’s The Epistle of James and Eschatology: Re-reading an Ancient Christian Letter.” Review of Biblical Literature.

Deppe, Dean B. 1990. The Sayings of Jesus in the Paraenesis of James: A PDF Revision of the Doctoral Dissertation The Sayings of Jesus in the Epistle of James.

Eve, Eric. 2005. “Book Review: James and Jude.” Expository Times 117: 35.

Felder, Cain Hope. 1982. “Wisdom, Law and Social Concern in the Epistle of James.” Ph.D. dissertation, Union Theological Seminary, New York.

Felder, Cain Hope. 1998. “James.” In A Catholic and Ecumenical Commentary for the Twenty-First Century, ed. by William R. Farmer, 1786-1801. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.

Foster, Paul. 2006. “Book Review: Studies on James.” Expository Times 117: 481.

Green, Joel B. 2002. “Review of Matt A. Jackson-McCabe’s Logos and Law in the Letter of James: The Law of Nature, the Law of Moses and the Law of Freedom.” Review of Biblical Literature.

Hagner, Donald A. 2008. “A Response to John P. Meier’s ‘Did the Historical Jesus Prohibit All Oaths?” Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 6: 25-32.

Hill, David. 1981. “Book review of S. Laws, A Commentary on the Epistle of James.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 13: 123-26.

Hockman, David. 2006. “Sanctification Day by Day.” Paper presented at the Conference on Baptist Fundamentalism. Watertown, WI: Maranatha Baptist Bible College.

Horbury, William. 1977. “Book Review: James.” Expository Times 89: 88.

Johnson, David Keith. 1971. “James’ Use of the Old Testament.” Th.D. dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary.

Gwilliam, G. H. 1893. “Mayor’s ‘Epistle of St. James’.” Expository Times 4: 345.

Klawans, Jonathan. 2008. “The Prohibition of Oaths and Contra-scriptural Halakhot: A Response to John P. Meier.” Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 6: 33-48.

Meier, John P. 2007. “Did the Historical Jesus Prohibit All Oaths? Part 1.” Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 5: 175-204.

Meier, John P. 2008. “Did the Historical Jesus Prohibit All Oaths? Part 2.” Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 6: 3-24.

Meier, John P. 2008. “The Historical Jesus and Oaths: A Response to Donald A. Hagner and Jonathan Klawans.” Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 6: 49-58.

Pahl, Michael W. 2006. “The ‘Gospel’ and the ‘Word’: Exploring Some Early Christian Patterns.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 29: 211-27.

Penner, Todd C. 2000. “Review of Martin Klein’s ‘Ein vollkommenes Werk’: Vollkommenheit, Gesetz und Gericht als theologische Themen des Jakobusbriefes.” Review of Biblical Literature.

Reis, David M. 2005. “Book Review: The Letter of James: Historical and Theological Essays.” Expository Times 116: 173.

Robbins, Vernon K. 1996. “Making Christian Culture in the Epistle of James.” Scriptura 59: 341-351.

Robbins, Vernon K. 2002. “A Comparison of Mishnah Gittin 1:1-2:2 and James 2:1-13 from a Perspective of Greco-Roman Rhetorical Elaboration.” In Jack N. Lightstone, Mishnah and the Social Formation of the Early Rabbinic Guild: A Socio-Rhetorical Approach. Studies in Christianity and Judaism 11. Waterloo: Wilfred Laurier University Press for the Canadian Corporation for Studies in Religion: 201-216.

Scott, J. Julius, Jr. 1979. “Non-Canonical References to James, the Relative of Jesus.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature. New York, NY.

Scott, J. Julius, Jr. 1982. “James the Relative of Jesus and the Expectation of an Eschatological Priest.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 25: 323-331.

Scott, J. Julius, Jr. 1999. “Commas and the Christology of the Epistle of James.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society, Danvers, MA.

Spitaler, Peter. 2006. “Doubt or Dispute (Jude 9 and 22-23): Rereading a Special New Testament Meaning through the Lense of Internal Evidence.” Biblica 87: 201-222.

Spitaler, Peter. 2007. “Doubting in Acts 10:27?” Filología Neotestamentaria 20: 81-93.

Webb, Robert L., and John S. Kloppenborg, eds. 2007. Reading James with New Eyes: Methodological Reassessments of the Letter of James. Library of New Testament Studies 342. London: T&T Clark.

100 Titles on James Added

I just added nearly 100 new titles to the Recent James Scholarship page. About 40 of them are German titles and there’s also a handful of French titles. They’re in chronological order there, but I list the new titles below in alphabetical order. I basically tried to pick out the James titles from the recent bibliographies found in Niebuhr and Wall’s The Catholic Epistles & Apostolic Tradition and from Batten’s What Are They Saying About James? I was surprised that a lot of these weren’t already here. I know there’s still many more that I haven’t entered, but this is a good jump.

Adamson, J. B. 1993. The Epistle of James. 2d ed. New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Adamson, J. B. 1989. James: The Man and His Message. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Avemarie, F. 2001. “Die Werke des Gesetzes im Spiegel des Jakobusbriefs: A Very Old Perspective on Paul.” Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche, 98: 282-309.

Baasland, E. 1988. “Literarische Form, Thematik und geschichtliche Einordnung des Jokobusbriefes.” Pages 3646-84 in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung 2.25.5. Ed. by W. Haase and H. Temporini. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Baker, W. R. 1995. Personal Speech-Ethics in the Epistle of James. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 2.68. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

Balz, H. 1993. “Der Brief des Jakobus.” Pages 1-59 in Balz and Schrage, Die “Katholischen” Briefe: Die Briefe des Jakobus, Petrus, Johannes und Judas. Das Neue Testament Deutsch 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Balz, H., and W. Schrage. 1993. Die “Katholischen” Briefe: Die Briefe des Jakobus, Petrus, Johannes und Judas. Das Neue Testament Deutsch 10. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1973; 4th ed., 1993.

Batten, Alicia. 2004. “God in the Letter of James: Patron or Benefactor?” New Testament Studies, 50: 257-72.

Bede the Venerable. 1985. Commentary on the Seven Catholic Epistles. Translated by D. Hurst. Cistercian Studies 82. Kalamazoo, MI: Cistercian Publications.

Bernheim, Pierre Antoine. 1997. James, Brother of Jesus. Trans. by John Bowden. London: SCM Press.

Beyschlag, W. 1874. “Der Jakobusbrief als urchristliches Geschichtsdenkmal.” Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 48: 105-66.

Bockmuehl, M. 1999. “Antioch and James the Just.” Pages 155-98 in James the Just and Christian Origins. Ed. by B. Chilton and C. A Evans. Leiden: Brill.

Boyle, M. O’Rourke. 1985. “The Stoic Paradox of James 2:10.” New Testament Studies, 31: 611-17.

Brooks, J. A. 1969. “The Place of James in the New Testament Canon.” Scottish Journal of Theology, 12: 41-51.

Brosend II, William F. 2004. James and Jude. NCBC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brückner, W. 1874. “Zur Kritik des Jakobusbriefes.” Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Theologie, 17: 530-41.

Burchard, Christoph. 1990. “Nächstenliebegebot, Dekalog und Gesetz in Jak 2,8-11.” Pages 517-33 in Die Hebräische Bibel und ihre zweifache Nachgeschichte. Ed. by Erhard Blum, Christian Macholz, and Ekkehard W. Stegemann. Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener.

Burchard, Christoph. 1991. “Zu einigen christologischen Stellen des Jakobusbriefes.” Pages 353-68 in Anfänge der Christologie. Ed. by Cilliers Breytenbach and Henning Paulsen. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Carroll, K. L. 1961. “The Place of James in the Early Church.” Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester, 44: 49-67.

Catchpole, D. R. 1977. “Paul, James and Apostolic Decree.” New Testament Studies, 23: 428-44.

Chilton, B., and C. Evans. 1999. James the Just and Christian Origins. Leiden: Brill.

Chilton, B., and J. Neusner. 2001. The Brother of Jesus: James the Just and his Mission. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox.

Coker, R. Jason. 2007. “Nativism in James 2:14-26: A Post-Colonial Reading?” In Reading James with New Eyes. Methodological Reassessments of the Letter of James, ed. by Robert L. Webb and John S. Kloppenborg, 27-48. LNTS 342. London: T&T Clark.

Cooper, R. M. 1968. “Prayer: A Study in Matthew and James.” Encounter, 29: 268-77.

Dautzenberg, G. 1981. “Ist das Schwurverbot Mt 5,33-37; Jak 5,12 ein Beispiel für die Thorakritik Jesu?” Biblische Zeitschrift NF 25: 47-66.

Davids, Peter H. 1988. “The Epistle of James in Modern Discussion.” Pages 3621-45 in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung 2.25.5. Ed. by W. Haase and H. Temporini. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Davids, Peter H. 1985. “James and Jesus.” In The Jesus Tradition outside the Gospels. Ed. by David Wenham. Vol. 5 of Gospel Perspectives. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 63-84.

Dibelius, Martin. 1984. Der Brief des Jakobus: Mit Ergänzungen von H. Greeven, mit einem Literaturverzeichnis und Nachtrag hg. v. F. Hahn. Kritisch-exegetischer Kommentar über das Neue Testament 15. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1921. 12th ed., 1984.

Dillman, C. N. 1978. “A Study of Some Theological and Literary Comparisons of the Gospel of Matthew and the Epistle of James.” Ph.D. diss., University of Edinburgh.

Elliott, John H. 1993. “The Epistle of James in Rhetorical and Social Scientific Perspective: Holiness-Wholeness and Patterns of Replication,” Biblical Theology Bulletin, 23:71-81.

Farmer, W. R. 1999. “James the Lord’s Brother, According to Paul.” In James the Just and Christian Origins. Ed. by B. Chilton and C. A Evans. Leiden: Brill, 133-53.

Feine, P. 1893. Der Jakobusbrief nach Lehranschauungen und Entstehungsverhältnissen. Eisenach: Wilckens.

Ferris, T. E. S. 1939. “The Epistle of James in Relation to I Peter.” Church Quarterly Review, 128: 303-8.

Frankemölle, Hubert. 1994. Der Brief des Jakobus. Ökumenischer Taschenbuch-Kommentar zum Neuen Testament, 17.2. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.

Frankemölle, Hubert. 1990. “Das semantische Netz des Jakobusbriefes: Zur Einheit eines umstrittenen Briefes.” Biblische Zeitschrift, 34: 161-97.

Gammie, John J. 1990. “Paraenetic Literature: Toward the Morphology of a Secondary Genre.” Semeia, 50: 41-77.

Gowan, D. E. 1993. “Wisdom and Endurance in James.” Horizons in Biblical Theology, 15: 145-53.

Gryglewicz, F. 1961. “L’Épître de St. Jacques et l’Évangile de St. Matthieu.” Roczniki Teologiczno-Kanoniczne, 8:33-55.

Hahn, F., and P. Müller. 1998. “Der Jakobusbrief.” Theologische Rundschau, 63:1-73.

Halson, B.R. 1968. “The Epistle of James: ‘Christian Wisdom?’” Studia Evangelica 4 = Texte und Untersuchungen 102. Berlin: de Gruyter, 308-14.

Harner, Philip B. 2004. What Are They Saying About the Catholic Epistles? New York/Mahwah, NJ: Paulist.

Hartin, P. J. 1989. “James and the Q Sermon on the Mount/Plain.” In Society of Biblical Literature 1989 Seminar Papers. Ed. by David J. Lull. Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers, 28. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 440-57.

Hartin, P. J. 1996. “Who is Wise and Understanding Among You? (James 3:13): An Analysis of Wisdom, Eschatology and Apocalypticism in the Epistle of James.” In Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 483-503.

Hauck, F. 1926. Der Brief des Jakobus. Kommentar zum Neuen Testament, 16. Leipzig: Deichert.

Haupt, E. 1896. “F. Spitta, Der Brief des Jakobus.” Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 69: 747-68.

Heiligenthal, R. 1999. “‘Petrus und Jakobus, der Gerechte’: Gedanken zur Rolle der beiden Säulenapostel in der Geschichte des frühen Christentums.” Zeitschrift fürNeues Testament, 2: 32-40.

Hengel, M. 1987. “Der Jakobusbrief als antipaulinische Polemik.” In Tradition and Interpretation in the New Testament. Ed. by G. F. Hawthorne and O. Betz. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 248-78.

Hengel, M. 1985. “Jakobus der Herrenbruder – der erste ‘Papst’?” In Glaube und Eschatologie. Ed. by Erich Gräßer and Otto Merk. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 71-104.

Hengel, M. 2002. Paulus und Jakobus: Kleine Schriften, 3. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament, 141. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

Hoppe, R. 2001. “Der Jakobusbrief als briefliches Zeugnis hellenistisch und hellenistisch-jüdisch geprägter Religiositä.” In Der neue Mensch in Christus. Ed. by J. Beutler. Quaestiones disputatae 190. Freiburg: Herder, 164-89.

Hoppe, R. 1977. Der theologische Hintergrund des Jakobusbriefes. Forschung zur Bibel 28. Würzburg: Echter-Verlag.

Huther, J. E. 1870. Kritisch exegetisches Handbuch über den Brief des Jacobus. Kritisch-exegetischer Kommentar über das Neue Testament 15. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1921. 3rd ed., 1984.

Johnson, L. T. 1998. “The Letter of James.” In The New Interpreter’s Bible 12. Nashville: Abingdon, 117-225.

Kittel, G. 1942. “Der geschichtliche Ort des Jakobusbriefes.” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche, 41: 71-105.

Kloppenborg, John S. 1998. “Status und Wohltägtigkeit bei Paulus und Jakobus.” In Von Jesus zum Christus. Christologischen Studien. Festgabe für Paul Hoffman zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. by R. Hoppe and U. Busse, 127-54. BZNW 93. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Konradt, M. 2003. “Der Jakobusbrief als Brief des Jakobus: Erwägungen zum historischen Kontext des Jakobusbriefes im Lichte der traditionsgeschichtlichen Beziehungen zum 1 Petr und zum Hintergrund der Autorfiktion.” Pages 16-53 in Der Jakobusbrief: Beiträge zur Aufwertung der “strohernen Epistel.” Ed. by P. von Gemünden, M. Konradt, and G. Theißen. Münster: Lit.

Konradt, M. 1999. “Theologie in der ‘strohernen Epistel’: Ein Literaturbericht zu neueren Ansätzen in der Exegese des Jakobusbriefes.” Verkündigung und Forschung, 44: 54-78.

Krodel, G. 1995. The General Letters: Hebrews, James, 1-2 Peter, Jude, 1-2-3 John. Minneapolis: Fortress.

Kuechler, C. G. 1818. De rhetorica epistolae Jacobi indole. Leipzig: Glueck.

Kürzdörfer, K. 1966. “Der Charakter des Jakobusbriefes: Eine Auseinandersetzung mit den Thesen von A. Meyer und M. Dibelius.” Ms. diss., Tübingen.

Limberis, Vasiliki. 1997. “The Provenance of the Caliphate Church: James 2:17-26 and Galatians 3 Reconsidered.” In Early Christian Interpretation of the Scriptures of Israel: Investigations and Proposals, ed. by Craig A. Evans and James A. Sanders, 397-420. JSNTSup 148. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

Lohse, E. 1957. “Glaube und Werke: Zur Theologie des Jakobusbriefes.” Zeitschrift für di neutestamentliche Wissenschaft und die Kunde der älteren Kirche, 48: 1-22.

Luck, Ulrick. 1971. “Der Jakobusbrief und die Theologie des Paulus.” Theologie und Glaube 61: 161-79.

Ludwig, M. 1994. Wort als Gesetz: Eine Untersuchung zum Verständnis von “Wort” und “Gesetz” in israelitisch-frühjüdischen und neutestamentlichen Schriften: Gleichzeitig ein Beitrag zur Theologie des Jakobusbriefes. Europäische Hochschulschriften, 23, 502. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.

Marcus, Joel. 1982. “The Evil Inclination in the Epistle of James.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 44: 606-21.

Martin, G. C. 1907. “The Epistle of James as a Storehouse of the Sayings of Jesus.” Pages 174-84 in The Expositor. Ed. by Samuel Cox, William Robertson Nicoll, and James Moffatt. Seventh Series 3. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

Mayor, Joseph B. 1892. The Epistle of James: The Greek Text with Introduction, Notes and Comments. London: Macmillan, 1892. 2d ed., 1897. 3d ed., 1913. Repr., Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1990.

McKnight, S. 1999. “A Parting within the Way: Jesus and James on Israel and Purity.” Pages 83-129 in James the Just and Christian Origins. Ed. by Bruce D. Chilton and Craig A. Evans. Leiden: Brill.

Meyer, A. 1930. Das Rätsel des Jakobusbriefes. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für di neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 10. Gießen: Töpelmann.

Michl, J. 1968. Die katholischen Briefe. 2d ed. Regensburger Neues Testament 8.2. Regensburg: Pustet.

Mussner, Franz. 1964. Der Jakobusbrief: Auslegung. Herders theologischer Kommentar zum Neuen Testament, 13/1. Freiburg: Herder, 3d ed., 1975. 4th ed., 1981. 5th ed., 1987.

Niebuhr, K.-W. 2004. “A New Perspective on James? Neuere Forschungen zum Jakobusbrief.” Theologische Literaturzeitung, 129: 1019-1044.

Niebuhr, K.-W. 2000. Review of M. Konradt, Christliche Existenz nach dem Jakobusbrief. Theologische Literaturzeitung, 125: 756-59.

Niebuhr, K.-W. 1999. “Tora ohne Tempel: Paulus und der Jakobusbrief im Zusammenhang frühjüdischer Torarezeption für die Diaspora.” Pages 427-60 in Gemeinde ohne Tempel—Community without Temple: Zur Substituierung und Transformation des Jerusalemer Tempels und seines Kults im Alten Testament, antiken Judentum und frühen Christentum. Ed. by B. Ego, A. Lange, and P. Pilhofer. Wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen zum Neuen Testament 118. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

Painter, J. 2006. “James as the First Catholic Epistle.” Interpretation, 60.3: 245-59.

Painter, J. 1999. Just James: The Brother of Jesus in History and Tradition. Minneapolis: Fortress. 2d ed. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Patry, R. 1899. L’Épitre de Jacques: dans ses rapports avec la prédication de Jésus. Alençon: Guy.

Popkes, W. 1986. Adressaten, Situation, und Form des Jakobusbriefes. Stuttgarter Bibelstudien 125/126. Stuttgart: Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk.

Popkes, W. 1994. “The Law of Liberty (James 1:25; 2:12).” Pages 131-42 in International Theological Studies: Contributions of Baptist Scholars 1. Ed. by the Faculty of Baptist Theological Seminary Rüschlikon. Bern: Peter Lang.

Popkes, W. 1996. Paränese und Neues Testament. Stuttgarter Bibelstudien 168. Stuttgart: Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk.

Porter, S. E. 1991. “Is δίψυχος (James 1,8; 4,8) a ‘Christian’ Word?” Biblica 71: 469-98.

Reese, James M. 1982. “The Exegete as Sage: Hearing the Message of James.” Biblical Theology Bulletin 12: 82-85.

Rose, V. 1896. “L’Épitre de saint Jacques est-elle un écrit chrétien?” Revue biblique, 5: 519-34.

Schlatter, A. 1932. Der Brief des Jakobus. Stuttgart: Calwer.

Seitz, O. J. F. 1944. “The Relationship of the Shepherd of Hermas to the Epistle of James.” Journal of Biblical Literature, 63: 131-40.

Spitta, F. 1896. Der Brief des Jakobus. Vol. 2 of Zur Geschichte und Litteratur des Urchristentums. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Syreeni, Kari. 2002. “James and the Pauline Legacy: Power Play in Corinth?” In Fair Play: Diversity and Conflicts in Early Christianity. Essays in Honour of Heikki Räisänen, ed. by Ismo Dunderberg, Christopher Tuckett and Kari Syreeni, 397-437. NovTSup 103. Leiden: Brill.

Theißen, G. 2003. “Nächstenliebe und Egalität: Jak 2,1-13 als Höhepunkt urchristlicher Ethik.” Pages 120-42 in Der Jakobusbrief. Beiträge zur Rehabilitierung der “strohernen Epistel.” Ed. by Petra von Gemünden, Matthias Konradt, and Gerd Theißen. Beiträge zum Verstehen der Bibel 3. Münster: Lit.

Tiller, Patrick A. 1998. “The Rich and Poor in James. An Apocalyptic Proclamation.” Society of Biblical Literature Seminar Papers 37: 909-20.

van der Westhuizen, J. D. N. 1991. “Stylistic Techniques and their Functions in James 2:14-26.” Neotestamentica 25: 89-107.

Vhymeister, Nancy. 1995. “The Rich Man in James 2: Does Ancient Patronage Illumine the Text?” Andrews University Seminary Studies 33: 265-83.

Ward, R. 1992. “James of Jerusalem in the First Two Centuries.” Pages 779-812 in Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung 2.26.1. Ed. by W. Haase and H. Temporini. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Wifstrand, A. 1948. “Stylistic Problems in the Epistles of James and Peter.” Studia theologica 1: 170-82.

Wilson, Walter T. 2002. “Sin as Sex and Sex with Sin: The Anthropology of James 1:12-15.” Harvard Theological Review, 95:147-68.

Windisch, H. 1911. Die katholischen Briefe. Handbuch zum Neuen Testament 4.2. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2d ed., 1930.

Wolmarens, J. L. P. 1994. “Male and Female Sexual Imagery: James 1:14-15, 18.” Acta Patristica et Byzantina 5: 134-41.

Wuellner, W. H. 1978. “Der Jakobusbrief im Licht der Rhetorik und Textpragmatik.” Linguistica Biblica, 43: 5-66.